Early Modern Texts

On this site you will find versions of some classics of early modern philosophy, and a few from the 19th century, prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving intact the main arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought.

The text-preparer Jonathan Bennett died on March 31, 2024, through Canada’s MAID (Medical Assistance in Dying) program. There will be no further material added to the website. EMT will continue to function as a free educational resource. Enquiries may be sent to Jonathan’s grandson, Quentin Bennett Fox, at

Thomas J. Felicitano - an American writer based in Istanbul - has digitized our works into the e-book formats of .epub (for e-readers, tablets, cell phones) and .mobi (for Kindle).

We have created audio books for selected texts.

In March, 2024 we have added Essays by Francis Bacon.